Financial Accounting

Base Knowledge

Knowledge taught in the Introduction to Accounting Curricular Unit


Teaching Methodologies


The teaching methodology used is theoretical-practical and interactive. The program contents are taught through a theoretical exposition accompanied by the presentation of a set of slides prepared by the teacher and made available to students. During the theoretical exposition, student participation is encouraged by asking questions, with the aim of increasing interaction and stimulating reasoning and critical thinking. This theoretical exposition is also accompanied by the discussion and resolution of practical examples, in order to capture students’ constant interest in the subject taught. It is intended that, for each topic of the program, a theoretical presentation will be made, illustrated with examples of practical application. In the following classes, and with the teacher’s supervision, students solve several practical cases, with an increasing degree of difficulty. The aim of this methodology is the progressive internalization of the subjects taught and the consolidation of knowledge throughout the semester. Students are encouraged to actively participate in solving practical cases, either individually or in small groups, which is very important because it allows them to put theoretical concepts into practice and thus understand the importance of theory. Students are constantly encouraged to study from books and consider slides only as an aid to the material taught.


Learning Results

This curricular unit’s main objective is to complement the knowledge acquired in the Introduction to Accounting curricular unit. To achieve this objective, non-current assets and liabilities are studied in detail and, finally, the closing operations of the accounting year, with with a view to preparing the Income Statement and Balance Sheet.

After successfully completing this Curricular Unit, the student should be able to:

Understand the main aspects associated with the recognition and measurement of non-current assets and liabilities;

Carry out the different phases that make up year-end operations.

Identify the main objectives and the main elements that make up the financial statements, and

Prepare the main financial statements that form part of an entity’s financial report.



Chapter 1 – Tangible Fixed Assets

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Recognition

1.3 Measurement

1.4 Main tangible fixed assets

1.5 Accounting for acquisitions for payment, free of charge, by exchange and built by the company itself

1.6 Depreciation

1.7 Improvements and major repairs

1.8 Revaluations

1.9 Accounting for withdrawals

Chapter 2 – Intangible Assets

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Recognition

2.3 Measurement

2.4 Main intangible assets

2.5 Accounting for acquisitions

2.6 Amortizations

2.7 Accounting for withdrawals

Chapter 3 – Asset Impairment

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Impairment of financial assets

3.3 Inventory impairment

3.4 Impairment of tangible and intangible fixed assets

Chapter 4 – Non-Current Assets Held for Sale

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Recognition

4.3 Measurement

Chapter 5 – Financing obtained

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Types of financin

5.2.1 Bank loans

5.2.2 Bank overdrafts

5.2.3 Leases

Chapter 6 – Subsidies

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Investment subsidies

6.3 Recognition

6.4 Measurement

Chapter 7 – Personnel Expenses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Contributions, taxes and other charges on remuneration

7.3 Processing and payment of remuneration and corresponding charges

7.3.1 Current remuneration

7.3.2 Vacation charges

Chapter 8 – End of Year Operations

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Regularization operations

8.3 Results calculation operations

Chapter 9 – Income Taxes

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Personal Income Tax (IRS)

9.3 Corporate Income Tax (IRC)

Chapter 10 – Financial Statements

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Balance

10.3 Statement of results by nature

Chapter 11 – Sectoral Applications of Accounting

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Public accounting

11.3 Bank accounting

11.4 Accounting for insurance institutions


Curricular Unit Teachers




Borges, A., Rodrigues, A., and Rodrigues, R. (2021). Elements of General Accounting (27th ed.). Lisbon: Areas Editora.


Costa, C. B., and Alves, G. C. (2021). Financial Accounting (10th ed.) Lisbon: King of Books.

Gonçalves, C., Santos, D., Rodrigo, J., and Fernandes, S. (2020). Financial Accounting Explained – Practical Manual (4th ed.). Porto: Economic Life.

Monteiro, S. (2013). Financial Accounting Manual. Porto: Economic Life.

Moreira, J. A. (2019). Accounting – From Preparation to Interpretation of Financial Information. Lisbon: Sílabo Editions.

Rocha, D., Azevedo, G., and Rodrigues, A. M. (2016). Accounting for Everyone – Introduction to Accounting (2nd ed.). Coimbra: Almedina.

Legislation and NCRF.

Accounting Standardization System (SNC).