Hydraulics I

Base Knowledge

Knowledge of mathematics and physics obtained in the curricular units of the previous semesters

Teaching Methodologies

Teaching consists of an initial theoretical presentation, followed by practical exercises. The exercises portray
real situations, making the pupils familiar with the way fluid mechanics can be applied to the resolution of
engineering problems. In the theoretical presentation the expository and inquisitive method is used. In the
practical applications a demonstration of the methodologies is first introduced. Then new problems are
proposed and students are encouraged to find out the solution. In the laboratorial lessons several assays are
carried through, having the pupils to elaborate a small report. This activity has didactic value and allows the
pupil to relate the theory with the obtained practical results.
A final exam with a theoretical part (7 points) and a practical part (11 points) is carried through; the set of
practical laboratory works has a quotation of 2 points. The approval requires a global positive mark with a
minimum of 2 points in the theoretical part.

Learning Results

The main objective of this course is to provide the basic training in hydraulics (to be complemented
in the course unit of Hidráulica Geral 2) required for the activity of an engineer in planning, design and
management of hydraulic systems. On successful completion of this module, students will have:
The ability to solve problems in the domain of hydrostatics;
The ability to analyze design and sizing simple installations with pressure flow, with or without turbomachinery;
The ability to evaluate the stresses generated by flow in its solid boundaries and their supporting structures or
The ability to understand reduced model testing.


1. FLUID PROPERTIES: External forces; Properties involving the mass and weight of fluids; Viscosity; Elasticity;
Surface tension; Vapor pressure.
2. FLUID STATICS: Pressure; Pressure variation with elevation; Pressure measurements; Hydrostatic forces
on plane surfaces; Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces; Buoyancy.
3. FLUID KINEMATICS: Velocity and flow visualization; Rate of flow; Acceleration; Continuity equation; Laminar
and turbulent flow.
4. FLUID DYNAMICS: Bernoulli’s equation; Concept of the hydraulic and energy grade lines; Application of
Bernoulli’s equation; Hydraulic power. Pumps and turbines; Rotation and vorticity; Separation; Boundary layer
5. MOMENTUN PRINCIPLE: The momentum equation; Applications of the momentum equation.
7. FLOW IN PIPES: Shear-stress distribution across

Curricular Unit Teachers




CIVIL ENGINEERING HYDRAULICS – 5th Edition. Nalluri & Featherstone’s. Wiley- Blackwell, 2009

ENGINEERING FLUID MECHNICS. John A. Roberson, Clayton T. Crowe. John Wiley & Sons
FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS. Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi. John Wiley & Sons