Hydraulics II

Base Knowledge

Mathematical, physical and hydraulic knowledge obtained in curricular units taught in the previous semesters.

Teaching Methodologies

Teaching consists of an initial theoretical presentation, followed by practical exercises. The exercises portray real situations, making the pupils familiar with the way fluid mechanics can be applied to the resolution of engineering problems. In the theoretical presentation the expository and inquisitive method is used. In the practical applications a demonstration of the methodologies is first introduced. Then new problems are proposed and students are encouraged to find out the solution. In the laboratorial lessons several assays are carried through, having the pupils to elaborate a small report. This activity has didactic value and allows the pupil to relate the theory with the obtained practical results.

Learning Results

The aim of this course is to complement the basic training in fluid mechanics gained in the course of Hidráulica Geral 1, required for the activity of an engineer in planning, design and management of hydraulic systems. On successful completion of this course, students will have the capacity to: 1. Solve problems related to the design and sizing of complex hydraulic systems namely: systems of multiple interconnected tanks; piping systems in series and parallel; water distribution networks; 2. Solve simple problems related to flow through weirs and orifices; 3. Solve problems related to the design and sizing of open channel flow systems; 4. Solve problems related to the design and sizing of pumping systems.


1. PRESSURE FLOW: Minor Losses; Pipe Systems; Pipes in series and parallel; Multiple pipes and multiple reservoirs; Pipe networks. 2. OPEN CHANNEL FLOW: Classification of open channel flows; Uniform flow; Simple sections; Velocity distribution; Closed sections; Nonuniform perimeters; Gradually varied flow; Specific energy; Flow control; Classification of surface profiles; Examples of gradually varied flow; Rapidly varied flow – hydraulic jump. 3.FLOW TROUGH ORIFICES AND WEIRS 4.TURBOMACHINERY: 4.1Turbines: Classification of turbines; Reaction turbines installations; Impulse turbines installations; Specific speed; Runaway speed; Cavitation of the turbine; Turbine performance curves; Selection of turbines; Miniturbines. 4.2 Pumps: Classification of pumps; Centrifugal pump installations; Axial pump installations; Specific speed; Pump performance curves; Matching a pump to a piping system; Pumps in parallel or series connection; Pump start-up and priming; Suction limitations of pumps.

Curricular Unit Teachers




Basic support book and texts:

Nalluri, C. ; Featherstone, R. E. ; Marriott, Martin – Nalluri & Featherstone’s (2009). Civil engineering hydraulics : essential theory with worked examples. 5th ed. Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Quintela, António, (1996) – Hidraúlica. 5ª ed. Lisboa : Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. 

Apontamentos de Hidráulica Geral 2. Pedro N. M. Afonso. ISEC 2022

Additional bibliography:

Morel, Michel A. ; Laborde, Jean-Pierre (1994) – Exercices de mécanique des fluides : statique-dynamique des fluides parfaits et réels. Paris : Eyrolles.

Crowe, C. T. ; Elger, Donald F. ; Roberson, John A. (2005) – Engineering fluid mechanics. 8th ed. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons.

Munson, Bruce Roy ; Young, Donald F. ; Okiishi, T. H. (2006) – Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons.

Lencastre, Armando Coutinho de, (1983)- – Hidráulica geral. Lisboa : Hidroprojecto.

Massey, B. S. (2002) – Mecânica dos fluidos. Lisboa : Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Novais-Barbosa, J. (1986) – Mecânica dos fluidos e hidráulica geral. Porto : Porto Editora.